Place the cucumber rounds on a work surface and carefully cut a slot in the center of each. Sprinkle the cucumber rounds with the salt, then rub the salt in. Let stand 2 hours.
Rinse the cucumbers and pat dry. Stuff each cucumber round with 1 to 2 slices each of the chile and garlic. Pack the cucumbers tightly into 2 pint-size canning jars.
In a liquid measuring cup, combine the white vinegar, Chinese five-spice powder and 1 cup water. Pour over the cucumbers, making sure they're completely submerged. Screw on the lids. Let stand at room temperature 24 hours. Refrigerate at least 3 days before eating. (The pickles are best eaten within 3 weeks.)