Bring 3 to 4 inches of water to a full boil in a large pot. Season with salt, add the broccoli rabe and cook until crisp-tender, about 3 minutes; drain. Refill the pot with 6 quarts water and bring to a boil for the pasta. Pat the broccoli rabe dry.
In a large skillet, heat the oil, three turns of the pan, over medium. Add the anchovies; cook, stirring often, until they break down and melt into the oil, about 2 minutes. Add the garlic, chile pepper, shallot and raisins. Cook, stirring often, until the shallot softens, about 3 minutes. Add the stock and wine, then the saffron; let it bloom in the sauce.
Salt the boiling water, add the pasta and cook until 1 minute shy of the package directions, 7 to 8 minutes.
Add the broccoli rabe to the saffron sauce and cook until heated through, 1 to 2 minutes.
Add 1/2 cup of the pasta cooking water to the sauce, then drain the pasta. Add the pasta to the sauce and toss to combine. Add the parsley; season with salt to taste. Serve the pasta in shallow bowls topped with the cheese and nuts.