Preheat the oven to 425 degrees . Grease a 9-inch pie plate. On a foil-lined baking sheet, toss the cauliflower with 1 1/2 tablespoons olive oil; season with salt and pepper and arrange in an even layer. Roast until tender and lightly browned, 12 to 15 minutes.
Meanwhile, in a large nonstick skillet, heat 2 tablespoons olive oil over medium-low heat. Add the sliced garlic and cook until lightly golden, 2 to 3 minutes. Add the breadcrumbs, season with salt and pepper, and toast until golden, 5 to 7 minutes; transfer to a plate. Wipe out the skillet and reserve.
In a medium bowl, beat the eggs. Stir in the cottage cheese, 1/2 cup parmesan, the parsley and chopped garlic; season with salt and pepper. Spread half of the garlic breadcrumbs in the pie plate and top with the cauliflower. Pour on the egg mixture, gently shaking the plate to settle the mixture; sprinkle with the remaining 1 tablespoon parmesan. Bake, rotating halfway through, until set and browned, 20 to 25 minutes. Let cool for 10 minutes before slicing.
In the reserved skillet, heat the remaining 1 tablespoon olive oil over medium-high heat. Add the beans and 1/4 cup water; season with salt and pepper. Cover and cook until crisp-tender, 2 minutes. Sprinkle with the remaining garlic breadcrumbs.