In a small skillet, char the chiles and garlic cloves over medium-high heat for 8 to 10 minutes. Scrape off the charred skins and seed the chiles. Pop the garlic cloves from their skins. Using a food processor, pulse the chiles, garlic, parsley, cheese and pistachios with about 1/3 cup EVOO and half of the lemon juice; season with salt and pepper to taste. Place in a pasta bowl.
Meanwhile, bring a large pot of water to a boil, salt it, add the pasta and cook until al dente. Add a small ladleful of the pasta cooking water to the pesto, then drain the pasta and toss with the pesto for 2 minutes to coat.
While the pasta is working, in a large nonstick skillet, heat a drizzle of EVOO over medium-high heat. Add the shrimp, season with salt and pepper and cook until almost fully pink, about 3 minutes. Add the remaining lemon juice and the wine (or vermouth). Swirl in the butter to melt. Serve the pasta in shallow bowls and top with the shrimp.