Bring a large pot of water to a boil. Salt the water, add the pasta and cook to al dente. Drain, reserving 3/4 cup of the pasta cooking water.
Meanwhile, in a large skillet, heat the oil over high. Working in two batches, add the cauliflower and cook, stirring occasionally, until browned, about 6 minutes. Return the cauliflower to the skillet, stir in the garlic and cook until fragrant, about 1 minute. Add the tomato paste; cook, stirring constantly, until deep red, about 1 minute. Add the wine, anchovies and crushed red pepper; cook until the wine is reduced by half, 1 to 2 minutes; season with salt and pepper.
Reduce the heat to medium. Stir the pasta cooking water, then the pasta into the cauliflower mixture; toss. Cook until the sauce thickens, about 2 minutes. Off heat, stir in the cheese. Divide among bowls. Top with the marjoram leaves.