In a large pot of boiling, salted water, cook the pasta until al dente. Reserve 3/4 cup cooking water, then drain the pasta.
Meanwhile, in an extra-large, heavy skillet, cook the salami over medium-high heat, stirring occasionally, until crisp, 2 to 3 minutes; transfer to a plate. Add the EVOO and garlic to the pan and cook, stirring, until golden, 1 minute. Stir in the cabbage, 1/2 tsp. salt and 1/4 tsp. pepper; cook until the cabbage is crisp-tender, 3 to 4 minutes. Add the arugula and cook, tossing, until just wilted.
Add the drained pasta and reserved cooking water to the skillet, tossing well to mix; season with salt and pepper. Top with the salami and serve.