Bring a large pot of water to a boil. Add the cauliflower; cook until crisp-tender, about 5 minutes. Using a slotted spoon, transfer the cauliflower to a bowl of ice water (reserve the cooking water). Let the cauliflower cool; drain. Boil the reserved water for the pasta.
In a large skillet, heat the oil over medium-high. Add the pancetta; cook, stirring often, until the fat renders, 2 to 3 minutes. Add the onion, garlic and chile; cook until softened, 3 to 4 minutes. Add the cauliflower; cook, stirring occasionally, until browned in spots, about 5 minutes.
Salt the boiling water. Add the pasta; cook to al dente. Reserve 1 cup of the starchy cooking water; drain the pasta.
Stir the tomato paste into the cauliflower mixture; cook for 1 minute. Add the wine; shake the skillet until the wine almost evaporates, 2 to 3 minutes. Add the pasta water, pasta and parsley; toss. Season with salt and pepper. Top with cheese.