Trim the artichokes: Remove the outer leaves, then cut off the stems and top quarter; trim the tips of the spiky leaves with scissors. Rub the cut surfaces with the lemon.
Fill a large pot halfway with water. Juice the lemons into the water and add the remaining juiced halves to the pot; bring to a boil. Add the artichokes and cook until tender, about 30 minutes; drain upside down to cool. Pull out the center leaves to expose the choke and scoop out the spiny choke with a spoon.
Meanwhile, preheat the oven to 400 degrees . In a large skillet, heat 3/4 cup EVOO over medium-low heat. Add the anchovies in their oil, the garlic and crushed red pepper and cook until the anchovies melt, about 4 minutes. Add the breadcrumbs and cook, stirring frequently, until golden-brown and toasted, about 10 minutes. Stir in the parsley and black pepper. Remove from the heat and stir in the cheese. Spoon the filling into the heart of each artichoke and in the crease of each leaf. Place the stuffed artichokes side by side in a baking dish and drizzle with EVOO. Pour 1 cup water into the baking dish and bake to heat through, 15 minutes.