Preheat the oven to 350 degrees .
In a large, deep skillet with a lid, heat the oil, three turns of the pan, over medium. Add the anchovies; stir until they melt into the oil, about 1 minute. Reduce heat to medium-low; stir in the garlic and chile. Stir until fragrant, about 1 minute. Add the olives and capers; increase heat to medium-high. Add the tomatoes and vermouth, breaking up tomatoes with a spoon. Simmer until the flavors combine, about 5 minutes; add the herbs. Season the cod with salt and pepper, then add to the sauce. Cover; reduce heat to medium. Simmer until the fish is opaque and just cooked through, 7 to 8 minutes.
While the fish is cooking, warm the bread in the oven until crispy on the outside, about 5 minutes.
Divide the cod and sauce among 4 shallow bowls. Serve with the bread.