Bring a large pot of water to boil, salt it, add the pasta and cook until al dente. Drain.
Meanwhile, in a soup pot, heat the oil over medium heat. Add the chicken and garlic and cook, stirring, until the chicken is opaque, about 5 minutes. Transfer to a plate. Add the peanut butter, tamari, curry paste and tomato paste to the pot and stir. Increase the heat to medium-high and whisk in the chicken broth; add the ginger. Bring to a boil, then stir in the cabbage and cook until wilted, about 2 minutes. Return the chicken to the pot and stir in the apple juice.
Divide the pasta among 4 bowls. Ladle the soup over the pasta. Top with the bean sprouts, peanuts, scallions and cilantro. Serve with the lime wedges.