Preheat the broiler. Make a slit lengthwise down each frank, being careful not to cut all the way through. Place the grill seasoning and franks in a plastic bag; shake to coat. Place the franks on a baking sheet and stuff each with 2 or 3 strips of cheese.
In a large skillet, heat the olive oil over medium-low heat. Add the onions and cook until softened and golden, 12 to 15 minutes. Add the brown sugar, chipotle, adobo sauce and 1/2 teaspoon salt and cook, stirring, until the sugar dissolves, about 2 minutes.
Butter the insides of the buns and place face up on the baking sheet with the franks. Broil until the cheese melts and the buns are toasted, 3 to 5 minutes. Assemble the hot dogs and top with the caramelized onions.