Preheat the oven to 400 degrees . On a baking sheet, toss the brussels sprouts with the olive oil; season with salt and pepper. Roast, tossing occasionally, until browned, about 15 minutes.
Meanwhile, in a large pot of boiling, salted water, cook the pasta until al dente. Drain, reserving 1/3 cup pasta cooking water. Return the pasta and reserved cooking water to the pot. Stir in the butter and brussels sprouts; toss in the almonds. Top with the goat cheese.