In a medium skillet, melt 4 tablespoons butter over medium heat. Add half the garlic and cook, stirring occasionally, about 3 minutes. Stir in the bread crumbs, 1 teaspoon herbes de Provence, 1 teaspoon salt and 1/4 teaspoon pepper. Remove from the heat.
In a Dutch oven, cook the sausage over medium heat, stirring occasionally, until browned, about 7 minutes; transfer to a plate. Add the remaining 2 tablespoons butter, remaining garlic and 1 teaspoon herbes de Provence, the onions and bell pepper and cook, stirring occasionally, until the vegetables are crisp-tender, about 5 minutes. Stir in the flour and cook, stirring constantly, 1 to 2 minutes. Gradually stir in 2 cups water and bring to a boil over medium-high heat. Add the sausage and edamame and cook, stirring occasionally, for 3 minutes. Add the white beans and bring to a simmer. Add the shrimp and cook, stirring occasionally, until firm and opaque, 3 to 5 minutes. Season with salt and pepper. Sprinkle the seasoned crumbs over each portion.