In a medium saucepan, bring 4 cups water to a boil over high heat. Add the lentils, garlic and 1 teaspoon salt. Lower the heat and simmer until the lentils are soft, 15 to 20 minutes. Drain and let cool slightly; transfer to a large bowl. Mash the garlic against the side of the bowl and stir into the lentils. Add the onion, olive oil, lemon peel and lemon juice; season with salt and pepper.
Meanwhile, in a large skillet, cook the bacon over medium-high heat, stirring occasionally, until crisp, about 10 minutes. Transfer to a paper-towel-lined plate. Pour 1/3 cup of the bacon fat into a measuring cup; discard the rest.
Add the escarole to the lentil mixture; divide evenly among 4 plates. Sprinkle the bacon on top.
In a small nonstick skillet, heat the bacon fat over medium-high heat. Crack 2 eggs at a time into the hot fat. Cook, basting with the bacon fat, until the whites have set and the yolks are still runny, 1 to 2 minutes; season with salt and pepper. Top each salad with 1 egg.