Preheat the oven to 350 degrees. Line 18 standard-size muffin cups with baking liners. In a medium bowl, combine the flour, baking soda, baking powder and salt. In a separate bowl, mix the banana, yogurt and vanilla extract with a fork until combined (the mixture will be slightly lumpy).
Using an electric mixer, beat the granulated sugar and butter at high speed until light and fluffy, about 5 minutes. Add the eggs, one at a time, and beat until combined, scraping down the sides of the bowl between additions. On low speed, beat in half the dry ingredients, then all of the banana mixture. Add the remaining dry ingredients and mix until just combined; do not overmix.
Spoon the batter into the liners, about three-quarters full. Bake until a toothpick inserted in the center comes out clean, 20 to 22 minutes. Let cool completely on a wire rack and then dust with confectioners' sugar, using a dog-bone stencil.