Preheat the oven to 425°. Brush a rimmed baking sheet with the olive oil. Place the pizza dough on the pan and stretch to fit (if the dough is resistant, cover with a kitchen towel and refrigerate for a few minutes). Spread the ricotta on the dough. Sprinkle the Parmesan on top and season with salt and pepper. Nestle the asparagus pieces in the cheese and sprinkle the Gruyere on top.
Bake the pizza until the crust is brown and the cheese is bubbling, about 20 minutes. Scatter the prosciutto over the top and cut into squares.