Bring a large pot of water to a boil for the pasta.
In a large skillet, heat 2 tbsp. olive oil, two turns of the pan, over medium to medium-high. Melt the butter into the oil, then add the onion. Cook, stirring often, until softened, about 3 minutes. Add the artichokes and garlic; stir until the garlic softens and the artichokes are lightly browned around the edges, about 3 minutes. Add the lemon zest; season with salt and pepper. Stir in the wine and cook, stirring often, until evaporated, 3 to 4 minutes. Add the cream; bring to a bubble. Wrap the spinach in a kitchen towel and squeeze out any extra liquid. Break up the spinach with your fingers; add to the sauce. Cook until hot and thickened, about a minute. Season the sauce with nutmeg.
Meanwhile, in a small skillet, heat the remaining 4 tbsp. oil, four turns of the pan, over medium to medium-high. Add the breadcrumbs and granulated garlic; season. Cook, stirring often, until toasted and fragrant, 3 to 4 minutes. Transfer to a bowl to cool. Mix in half the cheese, and the parsley and thyme.
Salt the boiling water, add the penne and cook to al dente. Add 1/2 to 3/4 cup pasta cooking water to the sauce; drain the pasta.
Stir the remaining cheese into the sauce, then mix in the pasta. Serve in shallow bowls topped with the breadcrumbs.