"Garlic-and-oil pasta has a key ingredient, and it's not the garlic or the oil—it's anchovies. Melting them into the oil develops their flavor, which is closer to toasted salty nuts than fish." —Rach
Bring a large pot of water to a boil for the pasta.
In small skillet or on a small tray in the toaster oven, toast the pine nuts, stirring occasionally, until golden and fragrant, about 5 minutes. Transfer to a plate to cool.
In a large deep skillet, heat the oil over medium. Add the anchovies and cook, stirring and breaking up with a spoon, until they melt into the oil, 1 to 2 minutes. Add the garlic, chile paste, and fennel pollen. Cook, stirring constantly, until aromatic, about 2 minutes. Stir in the vermouth and reduce heat to low. Let the sauce simmer gently while the pasta cooks.
Salt the boiling water, add the pasta, and cook 1 minute less than package directions. Reserve 1/2 to 3/4 cup of the pasta cooking water, then drain the pasta.
Using tongs, toss the pasta in the sauce, adding cooking water as needed to coat the pasta with the sauce, about 2 minutes. Mix in the parsley and celery leaves. Serve in shallow bowls topped with the pine nuts. Garnish with the lemon wedges.